아직 정리중입니다. 양해바랍니다.
지목변경(Conversion of land use) 제 1편 - 주택부지(HOMELOT)
식량안보를 이유로 어느 나라든지 농지전용은 까다로운 절차를 요한다. 필리핀 역시 농지(agricultural land)의 지목변경절차가 전체적으로 까다롭다. 특히 그 면적이 500 SQM을 초과하는 경우에는 훨씬 더 어렵다. (다만 500 SQM 이하의 농지를 주택부지(homelot)로 변경하는 것은 상대적으로 수월하다.)
따라서 지목변경을 통한 토지가치상승을 노리는 투자자라면 무턱대고 먼저 토지를 구입하였다가 낭패를 보기 십상이다. 지목변경을 전제조건으로 매매계약을 하는 것이 현명할 것이다. 즉, 매수인의 비용으로 매도인이 지목변경절차를 진행하도록 하고 만약 지목변경이 무산될 경우에는 매매계약 역시 없던 것으로 하는 것이 안전할 것이다.
필리핀의 지목변경절차가 우리나라의 그것과 크게 다른 점은 필리핀의 경우 실제 개발행위(또는 건축행위)가 없더라도 지목변경을 허용한다는 점이다. 즉 일단 개발계획만 있어도 지목변경을 허용하고 그 후 (최장 5년 이내) 계획된 개발행위가 이루어지지 않을 경우 승인을 취소하는 방식을 취하고 있다. 개발행위에 필요한 인허가도 지목변경허가를 받은 후에 득해도 된다.
이하에서는 농지에서 주택부지(homelot, 500 SQM 이하)로 지목변경하는 것에 대해서만 설명하기로 한다. (그 외의 개발프로젝트용 토지의 전용은 매우 복잡하다. 따로 설명하기로 한다.) 근거법령: DAR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. 01-02
SECTION 4. Areas Non-Negotiable for Conversion — An application involving areas non-negotiable for conversion shall not be given due course even when some portions thereof are eligible for conversion. The following areas shall not be subject to conversion: 다음의 농지는 토지전용을 불허한다.
4.1. Lands within protected areas designated under the NIPAS, including mossy and virgin forests, riverbanks, and swamp forests or marshlands, as determined by the DENR;
4.2. All irrigated lands, as delineated by the DA and/or the National Irrigation Administration (NIA), where water is available to support rice and other crop production, and all irrigated lands where water is not available for rice and other crop production but are within areas programmed for irrigation facility rehabilitation by the government;
4.3. All irrigable lands already covered by irrigation projects with firm funding commitments, as delineated by the DA and/or NIA; and
4.4. All agricultural lands with irrigation facilities.
SECTION 5. Areas Highly Restricted from Conversion — The following areas/projects are classified as highly restricted from conversion: 다음의 경우에는 농지전용을 제한적으로 허용한다.
5.1. Irrigable lands not covered by irrigation projects with firm funding commitment; 관개프로젝트에서 제외된 관개가능한 농지
5.2. Agro-industrial croplands, or lands presently planted to industrial crops that support the economic viability of existing agricultural infrastructure and agro-based enterprises; 현재 농업생산시설이나 기업에 필요한 농지
5.3. Highlands or areas located in elevations of five hundred (500) meters or above and which have the potential for growing semi-temperate or high value crops; 고냉지채소 경작에 유리한 고도 500 미터 이상의 농지
5.4. Lands issued with notice of land valuation and acquisition, or subject of a perfected agreement between the landowner and the beneficiaries under the Voluntary Land Transfer (VLT)/Direct Payment Scheme (DPS) under the CARP; and
농지개혁법(CARL)에 의해 수용예정이거나 임의매도 대상인 농지
5.5. Lands within an Environmentally Critical Area (ECA) or those involving the establishment of an Environmentally Critical Project (ECP). Applications for conversion under this sub-section shall require, apart from the standard, requirements, an Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) which the applicant must secure from the DENR prior to application (for ordinary applications) or prior to commencement of actual land development (for applications involving housing projects). 토지의 본래 환경을 보호할 필요가 있는 지역(ECA)이나 환경에 악영향을 줄 수 있는 프로젝트(ECP)를 개발하는 경우에는 추가로 환경영향평가서(ECC)를 제출하여야 한다.
2.6. Environmentally Critical Areas (ECA) refer to areas that are ecologically, socially, or geologically sensitive as declared by law such as: 토지의 본래 환경을 보호할 필요가 있는 지역
2.6.1. Areas declared by law as national parks, watershed reserves, wildlife preserves and sanctuaries;
2.6.2. Areas identified as potential tourist spots;
2.6.3. Areas that are habitats of endangered or threatened species of indigenous Philippine plants and animals;
2.6.4. Areas of unique historic, archeological or scientific interest;
2.6.5. Areas traditionally occupied by indigenous people or cultural communities;
2.6.6. Areas frequently hit by natural calamities (geologic hazards, floods, typhoons and volcanic activities);
2.6.7. Areas with critical slopes of 18% and above;
2.6.8. Areas classified as prime agricultural lands;
2.6.9. Recharged areas of aquifer;
2.6.10. Water bodies used for domestic supply or to support fisheries and wildlife;
2.6.11. Mangrove areas with critical ecological functions or on which people depend for livelihood; or
2.6.12. Coral reefs.
2.7. Environmentally Critical Project (ECP) refers to a: 환경에 악영향을 줄 수 있는 프로젝트
2.7.1. Heavy industry project involving ferrous metals, iron or steel mills; petroleum or petro-chemicals, oil, gas, or smelting plants;
2.7.2. Resource extractive project such as major mining and quarrying project, forestry logging project, major wood processing, introduction of fauna or exotic animals in public or private forests, forest occupancy, extraction of mangrove products, grazing, fishery dikes, or fishpond development;
2.7.3. Major infrastructure project such as dam, power plant (utilizing fossil-fuel, hydroelectric, geothermal, or nuclear power), reclamation, bridge, or a major road; or
2.7.4. Golf course project.
SECTION 6. Priority Development Areas and Projects. —
다음의 지역이나 프로젝트들은 오히려 농지전용이 장려된다. 따라서 농지전용이 상대적으로 수월하다.
6.1. In accordance with RA 7916, EO-124-1993, and EO-258-2000, the following are priority development areas for land conversion:
6.1.1. Specific sites in Regional Agri-Industrial Centers/Regional Industrial Centers (RAIC/RIC) identified by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the DA pursuant to EO-124-1993.
6.1.2. Tourism Development Areas (TDA) identified by the Department of Tourism (DOT) pursuant to EO-124-1993.
6.1.3. Agricultural areas intended for Eco Zone Projects, endorsed by Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA), pursuant to RA 7916.
6.1.4. Agricultural land, owned by the government, to be converted for projects of national interest, as certified by proper government agency.
6.1.5. Agricultural land proposed to be developed as sites for processing plants of agricultural products, as certified by the Department of Agriculture.
6.1.6. Sites intended for telecommunication facilities endorsed by the National Telecommunications Commission.
6.2. Housing projects are priority development projects for land conversion that shall follow the fast-tracking scheme prescribed under EO-45-2001. When the application involves a mixed use of housing and non-housing projects, the application shall not enjoy the privileges of housing projects unless at least eighty percent (80%) of the land applied for conversion shall be used directly and exclusively for housing.
SECTION 7. Lands within SAFDZ. — In accordance with Section 9 of RA 8435, the following rules shall govern conversion of lands within SAFDZ:
7.1. All irrigated lands, irrigable lands already covered by irrigation projects with firm funding commitments, and lands with existing or having the potential for growing high-value crops included within the SAFDZ shall be subject to a conversion moratorium for a period of five (5) years from 10 February 1998 to 9 February 2003.
7.2. During the effectivity of the moratorium, conversion may be allowed with respect to only five percent (5%) of said lands within SAFDZ upon compliance with existing laws, rules and regulations.
7.3. The maximum of five percent (5%) of land(s) eligible for conversion to non-agricultural use from the total SAFDZ area shall be jointly determined by the DA and the DAR, upon the recommendation of the Regional and National SAFDZ Committees pursuant to Rule 9.5.2 of DA-AO-6-1998, or the implementing rules and regulations of RA 8435.
7.4. After the expiration of the conversion moratorium, conversion may be allowed on a case-to-case basis, subject to existing laws, rules and regulations on land use conversion.
SECTION 9. Who May Apply for Conversion. — The following persons may apply for conversion: 토지전용 신청권자
9.1. Owners of private agricultural lands or other persons duly authorized by the landowner; 소유자, 수탁인, 대리인 등
9.2. Beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program after the lapse of five (5) years from award, reckoned from the date of the issuance of the Certificate of Landownership Award (CLOA), and who have fully paid their obligations and are qualified under these Rules, or persons duly authorized by them; and CARL에 의해 농지(CLOA)를 부여받은 수혜농민
9.3. Government agencies, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and LGUs, which own agricultural lands as their patrimonial property.
SECTION 30. Documentary Requirements. —구비서류
30.1. Official receipt showing proof of payment of filing fee and inspection cost;
30.2. Duly accomplished application for conversion subscribed and sworn to before a notary public or any person authorized to administer oaths;
30.3. True copy of the Original Certificate of Title (OCT) or Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) of the subject land, certified by the Register of Deeds not earlier than thirty (30) days prior to application filing date....<중략>...
30.4. True copy of the Certificate of Title of the subject land as of 15 June 1988, and all successor Titles until the present Title(1988년 6월 15일 당시 등기부 및 그 후 현재까지의 모든 등기부들, mo) referred to in Section 10.4 hereof, if applicable.
30.5. Directional sketch map to guide the ocular inspection team in locating the homelot. 지도
SECTION 31. Procedure. — 절차
31.1. The applicant shall first secure an Application Form from the RCLUPPI.
31.2. Following the instructions that accompany the Application Form, the applicant shall fill up the same with all the necessary data, and thereafter, reproduce at least three (3) clear photocopies of the accomplished Application Form which he shall place in three (3) separate folders (plus a fourth folder for the original set), the distribution of which shall be as follows:...<중략>.... 원본 서류 1부와 그 사본 3부, 총 4부를 준비한다.
31.3. The RCLUPPI shall then review the completeness of the application folders. If found complete, the applicant shall pay a filing fee amounting to Five Hundred Pesos (P500) and the inspection cost amounting to One Thousand Pesos (P1,000). Acceptance date of the application folders shall be the "Filing Date" of the application.
31.4. Within five (5) days from Filing Date, the RCLUPPI shall transmit two (2) of the above folders, containing photocopies, to the PARO and MARO, respectively.
31.5. Within thirty (30) days from receipt of the folder, the MARO shall: check the status of CARP coverage on the subject landholding, post notices of the application in a conspicuous place in the municipality and a conspicuous place in the barangay covering the subject landholding; and submit a report thereon to the PARO. 담당공무원은 공고판을 설치하여 토지전용추진 중임을 알려야 한다. 이해관계인이 이의신청 할 기회를 주기 위함이다.
31.6. Within thirty (30) days from receipt of the MARO report, the PARO shall issue to the applicant a Notice of Conduct of Ocular Inspection indicating the date thereof. The ocular inspection shall be held not earlier than fifteen (15) days nor later than thirty (30) days from issuance date of the Notice of Conduct of Ocular Inspection.
31.7. The PARO and MARO or their representatives shall conduct ocular inspection in the presence of the applicant and oppositor(s), if any. 담당공무원은 신청자 및 이의신청인의 입회 하에 방문, 실사한다.
31.8. Within thirty (30) days from conduct of ocular inspection, the PARO shall submit a report and forward the records to the RCLUPPI.
31.9. The RCLUPPI shall deliberate on the merits of the application and may call the applicant and/or oppositor(s), if any, for clarificatory questioning, to judiciously resolve any dispute arising from the application.
31.10. Within thirty (30) days from receipt of the PARO report, the RCLUPPI shall submit its recommendation to the Regional Director.
31.11. Within thirty (30) days from receipt of the RCLUPPI recommendation, the Regional Director shall promulgate his decision on whether to grant or deny conversion.
31.12. The filing of a protest shall interrupt the running of any of the foregoing deadline periods. The RCLUPPI shall thereupon proceed to hear the protest and thereafter submit its recommendation to the Regional Director who shall resolve the protest simultaneously with the application.
SECTION 33. Conditions of Conversion Order. — The approval of the application for conversion shall be subject to the following conditions: 토지전용/지목변경 허가를 받은 자는 다음의 사항을 이행하여야 한다. 그러지 아니하면 허가는 취소될 수 있다.
33.1. The applicant shall not undertake any development until all the applicable permits and clearances from the other concerned government agencies have been granted. 개발에 필요한 인허가를 득하기 전까지는 개발행위을 시작해서는 않된다.
33.2. Within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the Conversion Order, the landowner shall post a performance bond in accordance with Sections 25 or 26 hereof. 개발행위 보증금을 납부해야 한다. 만약 전용허가를 받기 전에 개발에 착수하면 보증금은 압수당한다.
33.3. Within thirty (30) days from receipt of the Conversion Order, the landowner shall request the Register of Deeds to annotate on the property's title the land use allowed under the Conversion Order. 전용허가가 나오면 등기부상의 지목을 변경할 수 있다.
33.4. Within sixty (60) days from receipt of the Conversion Order, the landowner shall return to the CLUPPI or RCLUPPI a certified true copy of the title that already contains the annotation indicating the land use allowed under the Conversion Order. 지목변경한 등기부등본을 담당기관에 제출하여야 한다.
33.5. Within sixty (60) days from receipt of the Conversion Order, the landowner, solidarity with his co-owner(s) and developer(s), shall pay disturbance compensation to the affected farmers, agricultural lessees, share tenants, farm workers, actual tillers, or occupants, in such amounts or kinds as the parties may mutually agree upon, subject to the approval of the DAR. 농지전용으로 피해를 입은 소작농, 임차인 등에게 약속된 보상금을 지불하여야 한다.
33.6. Within one (1) year from issuance of the Conversion Order, the landowner and/or developer shall commence development on the property approved for conversion, and shall complete development not later than the deadline(s) set forth in its site development plan schedule, but in no case shall development extend beyond five (5) years from issuance of the Conversion Order. 전용허가를 받은 날로부터 1년 이내에 개발행위를 착수하여야 한다. 개발행위는 개발계획에 표시된 기간 내에 완료를 해야한다. 개발기간은 최장 5년이다.
33.7. For housing projects, the landowner shall secure an ECC, if applicable, prior to undertaking any development therein. 주택건설프로젝트의 경우 환경영향평가(ECC)를 받아야 한다.
33.8. The landowner and his representatives shall allow DAR officials free and unhampered access into the property approved for conversion for the purpose of monitoring compliance with the terms and conditions thereof.농지개혁부 공무원은 개발행위가 적법하게 이루어지고 있는지 수시로 방문 점검할 수 있다.
33.9. The landowner and future landowner(s) of the property approved for conversion shall not change its use to another use not authorized under the Conversion Order without prior consent from the DAR. This prohibition extends to changes in housing standards, changes in selling schemes, changes from social housing to open market housing or vice-versa, and all other similar changes. 허가된 지목과 다른 지목으로의 변경은 금한다. 변경시에는 DAR의 사전동의가 필요하다.
33.10. The landowner and/or developer shall submit quarterly reports on the status of development to the MARO, PARO, and DAR Regional Office covering the subject property. 토지소유자는 분기별로 개발현황 보고서를 제출하여야 한다..
33.11. The grant of a Conversion Order alone shall not be a ground for eviction. Any person who desires to evict occupants on the basis of the Conversion Order shall invoke other meritorious grounds and file the proper action. 농지점유자가 임의퇴거를 거부할 경우에는 (전용허가 이외에) 별도의 법원명령을 받아야 퇴거시킬 수 있다.
33.12. The DAR reserves the right to revoke the Conversion Order upon valid grounds and after proper investigation.
SECTION 34. Effects of approval of conversion — The approval of an application for conversion shall have, but shall not be limited to, the following effects: 토지전용/지목변경 효과/결과
34.1. It shall be limited to the specific use of the land authorized in the Conversion Order; 전용허가된 용도/지목으로만 사용하여야 한다.
34.2. It shall be subject to the schedule indicated in the detailed site development, work and financial plans, but in no case shall the period of development extend beyond five (5) years from issuance of the Conversion Order except as authorized by the Secretary or the approving official on meritorious grounds, provided that, if the development cannot be accomplished within five (5) years, the grantee of the Conversion Order shall submit a written request for extension within the six (6) months before the lapse of the five (5)-year period, and provided further, that the extended development period shall be one (1) year for every five (5) hectares, but in no case shall the extension exceed five (5) years. 처음 개발기간은 최장 5년의 기간 이내에서 정해 신청을 한다. 하지만 허가된 기간 안에 개발행위를 완효할 수 없을 때에는 기간 만료 전 6개월 이내에 연장신청하여야 한다.
34.3. The conditions thereof shall be binding upon successors-in-interest of the property; 토지승계인 역시 전용허가 조건에 구속된다.
34.4. The applicant shall allow duly authorized representatives of DAR free and unhampered access to the property subject of the Conversion Order to monitor compliance with the terms and conditions thereof; 허가받은 자가 전용허가 조건을 이행하는지 농지개혁부 담당자가 지속적으로 감시할 것이며 이들을 방해해서는 안된다.
34.5. The use authorized in the Conversion Order shall be annotated on the title of the subject property; and 변경된 지목으로 등기부에 부기등기한다.
34.6. It shall be without prejudice to the ancestral domain claims of indigenous peoples, if any, pursuant to RA 8371 or the "Indigenous Peoples Rights Act". RA 8371에 의해 인정된 해당지역 원주민들이 고유권을 침해해서는 안된다.