경제자유구역 내의 토지거래
흔히들 경제자유구역(Economic zone/Freeport) 내에서는 토지거래가 불가능하다고들 합니다. 그러나 아래 법조항 들을 살펴보면 반은 맞고 반은 틀린 얘기인 거 같습니다. RA 7916의 조항들을 보면 중앙정부 또는 지방정부 소유(publicly owned)의 경제구역 내에서는 토지매매가 불가능한 것으로 해석됩니다. 하지만 시행령을 보면 PEZA등록업체는 토지 및 건물을 구입할 수 있다고 되어 있습니다. 따라서 위 두가지 법령을 조화롭게 해석하자면 민간이 주도하는 경제 구역 내의 사유지는 다른 PEZA등록업체에 매도할 수 있다고 보아야 합니다. 예를 들어 PEZA 등록기업이라면 경제자유구역 내에 물류창고 같은 것을 짓는다는 명목으로 토지를 구입할 수 있다는 것입니다.
(실제 사례를 경험하신 분 중 만약 제 해석이 잘못되었다고 생각하시는 분은 코멘트 남겨주시면 고맙겠습니다.)
The Special Economic Zone Act of 1995 [RA 7916] (as amended by Republic Act No. 8748)
SEC. 5. Establishment of ECOZONES. – To ensure the viability and geographical dispersal of ECOZONES through a system of prioritization, the following areas are initially identified as ECOZONES, subject to the criteria specified in Section 6: <중략>
(ll) All existing export processing zones and government-owned industrial estates; and
(mm) Any private industrial estate which shall voluntarily apply for conversion into an ECOZONE.
These areas shall be developed through any of the following schemes:
i. Private initiative;
ii. Local government initiative with the assistance of the national government; and
iii. National government initiative. <중략>
SEC. 15. Administration of Each ECOZONE. – Except for privately-owned, managed or operated ECOZONES, each ECOZONE shall be organized, administered, managed and operated by the ECOZONE executive committee composed of the following: <중략>
SEC. 29. Eminent Domain. – The areas comprising an ECOZONE may be expanded or reduced when necessary. For this purpose, the government shall have the power to acquire, either by purchase, negotiation or condemnation proceedings, any private lands within or adjacent to the ECOZONE for:
a. Consolidation of lands for zone development purposes;
b. Acquisition of right of way to the ECOZONE; and
c. The protection of watershed areas and natural assets valuable to the prosperity of the ECOZONE.<중략>
SEC. 30. Leases of Lands and Buildings. – Lands and buildings in each ECOZONE may be leased to foreign investors for a period not exceeding fifty (50) years renewable once for a period of not more than twenty-five (25) years, as provided for under Republic Act No. 7652, otherwise known as the Investors’ Lease Act. The leasehold right acquired under long-term contracts may be sold, transferred or assigned, subject to the conditions set forth under Republic Act No. 7652.
RULES AND REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7916
Rule V. Lease of Lands and Buildings in the Ecozones
SECTION 1. Qualifications - Lands and buildings within an ECOZONE can be leased only to ECOZONE enterprises / entities authorized by or registered with the PEZA and owned or controlled either by Philippine nationals or by aliens under such terms and conditions as the Board may formulate. <중략>
Rule VI. Sale of Land or Building / Structure Within an Ecozone
SECTION 1. Land Acquisition - An ECOZONE enterprise duly registered with the PEZA may acquire lands within the ECOZONE subject to compliance with the nationality requirements under the Philippine Constitution and existing laws and to the terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Board. <중략>
If in the establishment of a publicly-owned ECOZONE, any person or group of persons who has been occupying a parcel of land within the Zone has to be evicted, <중략>
SECTION 2. Building Acquisition - An ECOZONE enterprise duly registered with the PEZA may construct, buy or sell building(s)/structure(s) subject to the terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Board.